Studies & Literature

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"Trans-Atlantic Relations-Overcoming New Challenges"

Speech by the Rt. Hon. Lord Robertson of Port Ellen, Secretary General of NATO
hosted by
The American Enterprise Institute Washington, D.C. March 7, 2001

Sen. Thompson, Bill Schneider, Jeff Gedmin, ladies and gentlemen,

I am very grateful for those introductions, and pleased to be able to speak to you from the home of the United Stales Senate. I cannot think of a better place to discuss the challenges facing NATO and my thoughts on how we get through them in ways that actually leave NATO stronger and better for the effort. 

I am also very pleased to speak to you under the auspices of the American Enterprise Institute's New Atlantic Initiative. It is gratifying to have a dedicated, political and think-tank effort aimed at renewing American support for NATO.

EuroFEDERALISM(I) in the third Millenium - - or 1787 revisited?
Kevin Anthony Stoda
Texas A & M University

"I know that the term 'federation' irritates many Britons. But to date I have been unable to come up with another word. We do not wish to irritate anyone."  

-Joschka Fischer, 2000 

I. The Treaty on European Union (TEU) was formally signed by both foreign and finance ministers at Maastricht in 1992. Prior to this passage, one of the key issues that the intergovernmental committees had struggled over was how the EU should be described. Neill Nugent (1994: 65) relates that " both in terms of its character and the stage of evolutionary process most states wanted the word 'federal' included, and would have settled for a phrase which appeared in drafts where the Treaty was described as marking 'a new stage in the process leading to a Union with a federal goal'. The UK government, however, was completely unwilling to see 'the F word' appear in any form at all and in the political trading which occurred at the Maastricht summit this point was conceded to the United Kingdom and the reference to federalism was replaced." Why was this word federalism--to which the EU seems headed--waylaid by the British at Maastricht? Is such a federalism the same as what Americans know or is it something particularly European?--or does Eurofederalism have a common definition that American political scientists can agree upon, too?

"From Confederacy to Federation - Thoughts on the finality of European integration"
Speech by Joschka Fischer at the Humboldt University in Berlin, 12 May 2000

(Translation of advance text)

Fifty years ago almost to the day, Robert Schuman presented his vision of a "European Federation" for the preservation of peace. This heralded a completely new era in the history of Europe. European integration was the response to centuries of a precarious balance of powers on this continent which again and again resulted in terrible hegemonic wars culminating in the two World Wars between 1914 and 1945.